GDA Nursing Class Notes 33


Normal elimination refers to the regular and healthy process by which the body expels waste materials, primarily through urine and feces. This process is crucial for maintaining overall health and ensuring the body rids itself of harmful substances and byproducts of metabolism.


•Urinary elimination is defined as expulsion of waste products from the body through the urinary system.

•Elimination from the urinary tract helps to remove the waste products from body.

PHYSIOLOGY:- Urinary elimination depends on the function of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Kidneys remove waste from the blood to form urine. Ureter transport urine to the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until the urge. Urine is passed out from the body through urethra.


•Anuria – no urine is passed

•Dysuria – difficulty in voiding

•Enuresis – involuntary urination during night

•Glycosuria – presence of sugar in the urine.

•Hematuria – presence of blood

•Incontinence – inability to control the discharge of urine

•Nocturia – frequency of urination during the night

•Oliguria – reduced amount of urine voided Polyuria – excessive output of urine