Spoken English note

Spoken English Class Note 3

English Prefix & Suffix
Prefix and Suffix are common in English and their correct use can help enhance the language
skills and deal with the unknown vocabulary easily. Let us understand what does prefix and
suffix mean.
What is Prefix?
A Prefix is a word that is added at the beginning of the root word to form a new word. A prefix
word does not have any meaning of its own but when added to a root word it modifies the
meaning of the word. Prefix makes a word negative, indicate opinion or show repetition.
Prefix examples: ● Un (Prefix) + Happy (Root Word) = Unhappy (new word)
● Dis (Prefix) + Organised (Root word) = Disorganised (new word)
What is Suffix?
Like Prefixes, Suffixes are also words that are added to the root word to form a new word but
suffixes are added at the end of the root word. Suffix does change the meaning of the word it is
added to but not make the word opposite or negative like prefix do, it simply changes the class
of the root word like a verb is changed into an adjective by adding a suffix.
Suffix examples: ● Forget (root word) + Ful (Suffix) = Forgetful (New word)
● Happy (root word) + Ness (Suffix) = Happiness (New word)
Rules to Add Prefixes & Suffixes:-

  1. Use hyphen (-) when adding prefix to a common noun. For example: Pro-American,
    Anti-religion, etc.
  2. Hyphen is must to be used after prefixes Self and Ex, example, Self-dependant, self-esteem,
    Ex-husband, Ex-employee, etc
    3.When adding a Prefix, do not change the spelling of the original word or root word; Examples:
    Undo, disappear, irrelevant, cooperation, irrational, etc
  3. Repetition of letters is possible when adding prefix. Basically the point number 3 (do not
    change spelling) is to be followed even if the spelling results in double consonants after adding
    the prefix
    5.There are certain words that start with prefix but do not have any prefix added to them like the
    word Uncle.
    6.Many Prefixes can have the same meaning like ‘in’ ‘im’ ‘un’ all these prefixes mean ‘opposite
    of’ or ‘not’.
    7.Similarly many Suffixes also have the same meaning. Like the suffix ‘er’ when added to any
    word will denote the action performed by the person. Example – Teacher, Gardener, Performer
    8.Suffix ‘er’ is also added towards the end of adjectives or adverbs to help compare two things.
    Example- Slow becomes slower, soon becomes sooner, fast becomes faster etc.
    9.When suffix is added, the spelling of the base word can change. This is mostly the case when
    the base words ends with y or e. For example – happy becomes happier, costly becomes
    costlier with suffix ‘er’, manage becomes managing, make becomes making with suffix  ‘ing’
  4. 10.The Prefix that ends in a vowel, ‘a’ then the base word starting with a consonant will use it as
    it is, like atypical, amoral, etc.

Prefix word and their meanings Prefix Examples
a(without/बि ना)- amoral,atypical
ante(before/पहले)- antecedent,antedate
anti(against, opposing/वि रुद्ध, वि रोध) -anti-bacterial, anti-war
arch(more, extreme/अधि क, अत्यधि क)- arch-capitalist, arch-rebel
auto(self /खदु) -auto-dial,auto-rotate
bi(two, twice/दो, दो बार)– bilingual, bisect, bi-monthly
circum(round/गोल)- circumnavigate, circumvent
co(with/साथ) -co-author, co-edit,co-worker
col, com, con(with/साथ)- collaborate, combine, connect
contra, counter(against, opposing/वि रुद्ध,वि रोध)- contraception, counterclaim, counteract

de(opposite action/वि परीत क्रि या) -declassify, destroy
dia(across/आर-पार)- diagonal, diameter
dis(not, opposite of/नहीं, के वि परीत) -disagree, disprove, distrust, disbelief
dys(abnormal/असामान्य)- dyslexia, dysfunctional
e(electronic/इलेक्ट्रोनि क)- e-book, e-mail, e-governance
eco(related to environment/पर्या वरण सेसबं धिं धित)- eco-tourism, eco-disaster
en(m) (cause to/करनेके लि ए)- encode, embrace
equi(equal/बराबर)- equivalent,equilateral
ex(previously, former/पर्वू ,र्व भतू पर्वू )र्व ex-president, ex-student
extra(very/बहुत) -extra-bright, extra-strong
extra(outside/बाहर)- extra-curricular, extrasensory, extraordinary
fore(before/पहले)- Forecast, forelimb

hyper(too much/बहुत अधि क)- hyperactive, hypersensitive
il, im, in, ir(not, opposite of/नहीं, के वि परीत)- illogical, impossible, indistinct, irrational
in(m)(movement to, in/आदं ोलन करनेके लि ए, में) -input, inset, intake, implant, import
inter(between, connected/के बीच, जड़ुा हुआ)- interrelated, interact
intra(within/अदं र) -intra-generational, intramuscular
kilo(thousand/हज़ार)- kilogram, kilometer, kilowatt
macro(large/बड़ा)- macroeconomics, macro-scale
mal(bad, badly/बरुी सेबरुी तरह) -malfunction, malpractice
micro(small/छोटा) -micro-economics, micro-scale
mid(middle/मध्य)- midway, midsummer
mis(wrongly, incorrect/गलत)- mistake, mistranslate, misunderstanding
mono(one/एक)- mono-centric, monoculture
multi(many/अनेक)- multicultural, multi-level
neo(something old in new form/नए मेंकुछ परुानाप्रपत्र)- Neoclassical
non(not/नहीं) -non-believer, non-competitive, nonsense
out(more, to a great extent/अधि क, एक महान के लि ए क्षेत्र)-outlive, outburst, outrage
over(above, too much/ऊपर, बहुत ज्यादा) -overlook, overcook, overhead, overheat
post(after/बाद) -post-examination, post-modern,
pre(before/पहले) -pre-industrial, preview, pre-war,
pro(in favour of/पक्ष में)- pro-feminist, pro-liberal, proactive
pseudo(false/असत्य)- pseudo-intellectual, pseudo-science
quasi(almost, not quite/लगभग, बि ल्कुल नहीं)- quasi-academic, quasi-legal
re(again/दोबारा) -rediscover, redefine, rename, return

retro(backwards/पीछेकी ओर) -retrogressive, retrospective
semi(partly, half/आशिं शिक, आधा)- semicircle, semi-organic, semi-precious
sub(part of something,under,beneath/कि सी चीज का हि स्सा, के तहत नीचे)-subway, submarine, subsection
super(above or bigger/ऊपर या बड़ा) -superpower, supersonic, supersta
trans(across/आर-पार)- transcontinental, transcribe, transport
ultra(extreme/चरम)- ultra-sensitive, ultrasound, ultramodern
un(not/नहीं)- unusual, uncertain, unusual
under(under,beneath,insufficient/के तहत नीचे,नाकाफी)- underpower, underemployed, undersea
well(useful, successful/उपयोगी, सफल)- well-designed, well-written. well-established
uni(one/एक)- universal,unilateral
omni(all/सभी) -omnibus, omnivore
Suffix word Suffix examples
-able, ible(can be done/हो सकता है) -identifiable, predictable, possible

-al, ial(has property of/की सपं त्ति है) -personal, partial, legal
-ant(having an effect/असर होना)- disinfectant, coolant, accelerant
–based(performing a major part of/का एक बड़ाहि स्सा नि भा रहेहैं) -oil-based,genetic-based
–cy(state or quality/राज्य या गणु वत्ता) -accuracy, literacy, urgency,
-ed(past tense of verb/क्रि या का भतू काल)- turned, ruined, cooked, cleaned
–ee(person affected by something/सेप्रभावि तव्यक्ति कुछ)- employee, interviewee, trainee, addressee
-en(made of, being made/सेबना, बनाया जा रहाहै)- golden, broaden, lighten
-er(comparative/तलु नात्मक)- higher, lighter, sooner, later
-er(one who perform or do something/वह जो करता या करता हो कुछ)- doer, painter, singer, performer
-est(superlative/अति शयोक्ति ) -slightest, lightest, best, biggest
–free(without/बि ना)- hasslefree, carefree, debt-free, pain-free
–ful(full of/पर्णू )र्ण -grateful, forgetful, fearful, careful, joyful
–hood(condition, period, state/हालत, अवधि ,
स्थि ति )- childhood, brotherhood, adulthood,motherhood
–ic(having property of/की सपं त्ति होना) -linguistic, photographic, electric, democratic
–ics(study of/का अध्ययन)- genetics, electronics, aeronautic
–ify(giving quality to something/को गणु वत्ताप्रदान करना कुछ) -clarify, purify, solidify, classify
–ing(present participle/वर्तमर्त ान कालि क वि शषे ण)- cooking, dancing, running
–ism(behavior or belief/व्यवहार या वि श्वास) -liberalism, modernism, heroism
-ist(one who follows certain behaviors or Philanthropist, anarchist, optimist, activist
belief/वह जो नि श्चि त रूप सेअनसु रण करता हो
व्यवहार या वि श्वास)-
–(t)ion(act or process/कार्य या प्रक्रि या) -reaction, action, projection
–(i)ty(state of/के राज्य)- extremity, infinity, sanity
–(t)ive(adjective/वि शषे ण)- active, motive, devotive
–ize, -ise(bring about a condition or state/एक शर्त लाना या राज्य)- modernize/modernise, colonize/colonise
–less(without/बि ना)- fearless, careless, meaningless
–like(resemble another/दसू रेके समान)- alike, bird-like, child-like
–ly, -y(having/रखना)- quickly, quietly, wordy, handy
–ment(action, process/क्रि या, प्रक्रि या)- fulfilment, enjoyment, development
–ness(state of, quality/अवस्था, गणु वत्ता)- Happiness, newness, kindness, effectiveness
–ocracy(type of ruling body/शासक नि काय का प्रकार)- democracy, autocracy, 
–ocrat(person ruling/शासन करनेवाला व्यक्ति )- autocrat, technocrat, democrat
–ology, -ological(study of/का अध्ययन) -archaeology, geology, biology, biological
–ous(having/रखना) -callous, joyous, religious
–ship(state or experience of specific partnership,position/अवस्था या अनभु व वि शि ष्ट स्थि ति )- entrepreneurship, professorship

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